http://www.onicesroofing.com/Are Composition Shingles and Asphalt Shingles the Same Thing? The roofing industry is full of different names and terms that are hard to understand as a homeowner. This can be confusing and often frustrating. Especially when different roofing contractors use different terms to mean the same thing. This brings us to a commonly asked question, “Are composition shingles and asphalt shingles the same thing?” For over 30 years, the team at Bill Ragan Roofing has helped homeowners understand the lingo, terminology, and other aspects of the roofing industry. Now we'll be doing the same thing for you. To start this article off, we'll clarify if composition shingles and asphalt shingles are the same. After that, we'll give you 3 things that every homeowner needs to know about a composition shingle roof. Are composition shingles and asphalt shingles the same thing? Yes, composition shingles and asphalt shingles are the same thing. It's simply just another term the roofing industry uses for asphalt shingles. The term “composition” comes from the fact that asphalt shingles are a composite of man-made materials. These materials consist of fiberglass, tar, and granules put on a fiberglass mat to make a shingle. Insurance companies also call them composition shingles on claims for roof damage. So, if you see “composition” on your insurance claim, there's no reason to panic. At the end of the day, you might hear different roofing contractors use one or the other. But the majority of the roofing industry uses asphalt shingles. Things to know about composition (asphalt) shingles Now you know that composition shingles and asphalt shingles are the same thing. After learning this, you're ready to learn the 3 main things every homeowner needs to know about composition shingles. 1. The 3 types of composition shingles There are 3 types of composition (asphalt) shingles: 3-tab, architectural (dimensional or laminate), and luxury (shake look or slate look). All 3 shingles have different looks to fit the style you're looking for and your budget. 3-tab shingles lay flat and get their name from the 3 tabs on each shingle strip. Architectural (dimensional) shingles have a random pattern and shadow lines to give your roof more dimension. Some even simulate the look of a wood shake roof. Luxury (shake roof and slate roof) shingles are larger and thicker than the other shingles. Most luxury shingles are designed to look like slate tiles, hence the name slate look. 3-tab shingles used to dominate the roofing industry, but now architectural shingles are the most common type installed on roofs today. Luxury shingles are as heavily marketed as architectural shingles, but they're around double the price. No matter your budget or the look you want, you'll be able to find an asphalt shingle that fits your needs. 2. The materials and components that make up a composition shingle roof While choosing which shingle you want is the fun part; your composition roof system is much more than the shingles you see from the street. It's a combination of key roofing components and materials that come together to form a complete roof system. These other roofing materials and components are just as important as the composition shingles themselves. The main materials and components that make up a composition roof are: Roof decking Roof flashing Underlayment Drip edge Ice and water shield Shingles Ridge capping Roof vents Pipe boots Flashing These materials come together to make a complete roof system that protects you and your family. To learn more about the functions of each roofing component and material, click on the hyperlinks attached to the materials or check out the 9 materials included in your roof replacement. 3. The lifespan of composition shingle roof A composition roof's lifespan is the number of leak-free years you get out of it. Remember the 3 types of composition shingles we discussed earlier? Well, each comes with a specified lifespan from the manufacturer. 3-tab shingles can last up to 25 years and live the shortest of the three types of composition shingles. On the other hand, both architectural and luxury shingles have a lifespan of around 30 years. But the luxury style is thicker and has the possibility to go over 30 years and up to 50 under the right conditions. As long as the composition shingles are properly installed and your attic is adequately ventilated, they'll get really close to the lifespans above. However, other factors impact how long a composition roof ultimately lasts. How much does a composition (asphalt) shingle roof cost? Now you know 3 things every homeowner needs to know about a composition roof. However, there's still one more crucial thing you need to learn. This, of course, is how much a composition shingle roof costs. The problem is, the roofing industry avoids talking about pricing or anything else relating to cost. But here at Bill Ragan Roofing, we do things differently. That's why we wrote another article that gives you the cost of a composition (asphalt) roof and the factors that impact the price of a replacement. The team at Bill Ragan Roofing has provided homeowners in Nashville and surrounding areas with high-quality asphalt roofing services since 1990. Whether you need repairs or a full roof replacement, you can count on our workmanship backed by a lifetime warranty to take care of your roof for decades to come. To learn what you can expect to pay for a composition roof replacement, check out How Much a New Asphalt Roof Costs: Pricing, Factors & Considerations. What Are Laminated Shingles? You've just gotten off the phone with another Marietta roofing contractor and he only seemed interested in installing laminated shingles on your roof. He's told you that they are his most popular seller, but does that mean they are the best shingle for your roof? Are laminated shingles really that great, or is it just sales hype? 3-TAB AND LAMINATED SHINGLES – WHAT A MARIETTA ROOFING COMPANY KNOWS ABOUT HOW THEY ARE MADE The difference between laminated and 3-tab shingles is really quite simple. They are both made from the same basic components, but one just uses more of them. The laminated shingle is essentially a beefed-up version of a 3-tab shingle, so it makes some sense to discuss the simpler 3-tab shingle, first. Twenty or so years ago, 3-tab shingles were used almost exclusively to cover residential roofs. Today's 3-tab shingle has not changed much, in terms of basic construction and size. A 1-ft. tall X 3-ft. wide shingle slab is cut with slots at one end to create three tabs, each about 5-in. tall X 12-in. wide. What results is the well-known and widely used “3-tab shingle.” The shingles are overlapped and nailed in place during installation. After a roof is finished the tabs are the only visible part of each shingle. Those unfamiliar with roofing often assume each tab is an individual shingle. Of course, now you know what every professional Marietta roofing contractor knows. Each visible “shingle” is, in fact, one of the tabs in a 3-tab shingle. As suggested earlier, laminated shingles are actually an enhanced, stronger version of a standard 3-tab shingle. Unlike a 3-tab shingle, a laminated shingle has an extra layer under its lower half. This gives the tabs on a laminated shingle a thickness that is twice as deep as it would be otherwise. But why is this thickness necessary? The primary goal of a laminated shingle is to provide a more natural and deeper look than that offered by a conventional 3-tab shingle. That is why laminated shingles are sometimes called architectural shingles. A laminated shingle creates depth by featuring tabs of varying widths that are separated by large, randomly spaced gaps. The large spaces between the cut tabs highlights the thickness of the tabs, creating a wonderful, visually appealing effect of depth. Some laminated shingles employ different shades, tones and even contrasting colors to create an even more distinctive, yet natural appearance. 3-Tab And Laminated Shingles – A Performance Comparison That Every Marietta Roofing Contractor Understands The next questions to ask is, how does the extra material used in a laminated shingle translate into performance? By virtue of their heavier construction, laminated shingles are able to last longer than 3-tab shingles. With more protective asphalt, granules and fiberglass per square foot, laminated shingles can resist sun, heat, impact and water damage more effectively and for a longer time than 3-tab shingles can. This is reflected, in general, by longer warranty times and higher wind ratings for laminated shingles. A side-by-side comparison of 3-tab and laminated shingles is presented below. Note that the warranty information provided is generic in nature and provided for reference, only. You should confirm product specific shingle warranty details with your Marietta roofing contractor before you make any purchasing decisions. How Long Can You Expect Your Asphalt Roof to Last? When investing in a new roof, you're expecting to get as many years out of it as possible. This is especially true for an asphalt roof. One of the most crucial questions customers ask is how long their asphalt roof will last. While a roofing contractor can say 25 or 30 years, you're probably wondering if it'll actually last that long. Luckily, we're here to help you understand the lifespan of your asphalt roof. The team at Bill Ragan Roofing has been installing asphalt roofs in the Nashville area since 1990. We know what it takes to maximize the life of your roof with our workmanship and attention to detail. The truth is, you should get pretty close to the manufacturer's lifespan of your roofing materials. But there are a number of factors that ultimately determine how much life you'll get out of your asphalt roof. By the end of this article, you'll know how long your asphalt roof should last and the factors that affect its lifespan. And to help save time and make your research a little easier, grab the Asphalt Roof Replacement Cheat Sheet at the very end. How long will your asphalt roof last? There are three types of asphalt shingles, 3-tab, dimensional, and luxury. But for this article, we're going to use the two most common asphalt shingles, 3-tab and dimensional, as examples. 3-tab shingles generally come with a 25-year manufacturer warranty. Dimensional shingles come with a 30-year manufacturer warranty. Vented properly and installed correctly, you should get around 80-85% of the life span out of an asphalt roof. That means you can expect to get about 20-22 years out of your 3-tab shingle roof and 25-28 years out of your dimensional shingles. posted an update 1년, 1개월전
Bauxite is a mineral with a dull, earthy luster which is usually white or gray, though sometimes can be found stained by yellow, orange, red, pink, or brown by iron or included iron minerals. It has no cleavage, a low specific gravity, and the Mohs Hardness Scale score is between 1 and 3. Its streak is usually white, but its iron stain can discolor. It has a variable chemical composition but is always rich in aluminum oxides and hydroxides. These are most of the identifying properties for bauxite and are useful for identifying the mineral; however, bauxite is most often processed into another material with properties much different than bauxite.
Interesting Bauxite Facts:
Bauxite is the principal ore of aluminum and crushing it is the first step in producing aluminum, and then purifying it using the Bayer Process.
Bauxite is washed in a hot solution of sodium hydroxide using the Bayer Process, which filters the aluminum from the bauxite.
Aluminum is usually produced where electricity costs are very low.
Bauxite is used as an abrasive. Sintered bauxite is often used as a sand-blasting abrasive produced by crushing bauxite to a powder, and then fusing it using a very high temperature into spherical beads.
The bauxite spherical beads are very hard and durable. They are sorted by size for use in sandblasting equipment and other sandblasting applications. Their spherical shape reduces wear on the delivery equipment.
Sintered bauxite can also be used as an oil field proppant, which ultimately allow for the flow of oil or natural gas out of rocks and into a well. A process known as hydraulic fracturing.
Bauxite resources are adequate throughout the world at current rates, but other materials could be used instead of bauxite include clay minerals, alunite, anorthosite, power plant ash, and oil shale, but at an increased cost.
Silicon carbide could also be used in place of the abrasives made from bauxite, and synthetic mullite may be used in place of bauxite-based refractories.
Small amounts of bauxite can be found in Arkansas, Alabama, and Georgia. Overall, though, there is very little mining of the mineral in the U.S., with 99% of it being imported from other countries.
Around the world, Australia, China, Brazil, India, Guinea, Jamaica, Russia, Kazakhstan, Suriname, and Greece are the top ten leading bauxite producing countries.
The top producers of bauxite have enough reserves for many years of continued production, with some having reserves lasting 100 years.
What is Bauxite?
Bauxite is primarily a metallic mineral though it is also used as an industrial mineral. It is the only ore used for large scale aluminium production. Although aluminium is the most abundant metallic element in the earth’s crust constituting about 8%, it usually occurs in clays, soil and rocks that cannot be utilized for its extraction.
Bauxite ore is soft and red clay, rich in alumina, and its name originates from Les Baux de Provence, It was a French geologist Pierre Berthier who first discovered bauxite near a village southern France in 1821. Later, a French chemist named Henri Sainte-Claire Deville officially termed the substance as “bauxite” in 1861. In any case, Bauxite is a form of sedimentary rock and is the principal source of the popular metal aluminium.
It is usually obtained from the topsoil in various tropical and subtropical regions. The ore is acquired through mining operations and currently, it is concentrated in most developed countries. More than 160 million metric tons of bauxite are mined each year.
From mineralogy point of view, the bauxite formula and chemical composition are tabulated below.
Oxide Formula Chemical composition (%wt) Mineralogy
Alumina Al2O3 35 to 65 Gibbsite, boehmite and diaspore
Silica SiO3 0.5 to 10 Quartz, chalcedony, kaolinite
Ferric oxide Fe2O3 2 to 30 Geothite, hematite and siderite
Titania TiO2 0.5 to 8 Rutile and anatase
Calcia CaO 0 to 5.5 Calcite, magnesite and dolomite
In terms of physical properties, Bauxite formula has a different composition. What it means is that bauxite contains a mixture of oxides like aluminium hydroxides, hydrous aluminium oxides, and minerals like gibbsite, boehmite and diaspore including some clay minerals. It also contains, insoluble materials namely magnetite, quartz, siderite, hematite and goethite. It is usually, yellow, white, beige, grey, reddish-brown, pink and brown.
Mullite – An Introduction
Mullite is the mineralogical name for the only chemically stable intermediate phase in the SiO2–Al2O3 system. The mineral rarely occurs in its natural form and can be found on the Isle of Mull off the western coast of Scotland.
Mullite is generally represented as 3Al2O3⋅2SiO2 (i.e. 60 mol% Al2O3). But in reality, it is a solid solution that has the equilibrium composition limits of 60–63 mol% Al2O3, below 1600 °C.
Different starting materials and preparation techniques are used to produce synthetic mullite ceramics. For instance, a mixture of sols, a mixture of solids, or a mixture of salt and sol can be used as the starting materials. Likewise, there is a range of preparation procedures, such as hydrothermal treatment of mixtures of sols, reaction sintering of mechanically combined powders, and chemical vapor deposition.
The properties of mullite are governed by the starting materials used and the preparation technique. Reaction-sintered mullite prepared from mechanically blended powders typically exhibit low fracture toughness (1–2 MPa m-1/2) and low strength (<200 MPa) because of the occurrence of amorphous grain boundary phases. On the other hand, gelation routes yield thoroughly mixed sub-micrometer particles that can be hot-pressed or sintered to make single-phase materials with excellent mechanical properties.
Mechanical properties can be further optimized by creating composites. The addition of Zr2O and SiC yields a fracture toughness of 7 MPa m-1/2 at room temperature.
Mullite in Porcelain
Mullite is also one of the vital ingredients used for making porcelain. Clays with less than 60% Al2O3 turn into mullite. The amount of mullite yielded is directly associated with the calcining temperature and the amount of Al2O3.
Good electrical resistivity
Optimal high-temperature strength
Superior thermal stability
Good thermal shock resistance
Resistance to abrasion
Resistance to oxidation and attack, in furnace atmospheres
Resistance to a range of chemical attacks; it exhibits outstanding stability in acid metal slags, and is insoluble in a majority of the acids.
Ironstones 07X and Flint Clays 09X
These two rock groups are easily identified by their color and texture. Unweathered specimens of both have distinctive red, orange, yellow, or brown colors.
Ironstone is very hard, and if you scrape a powder with a knife blade, it will effervesce weakly with dilute hydrochloric acid. Ironstones are usually composed of iron-carbonate minerals such as siderite and iron oxides such as goethite, hematite, and limonite, but the exact mineral composition is not required for classification. Most shales contain some ironstone as nodules or void fillings, and this class is restricted to rocks that have more than 50 percent ironstone.
Flint clays are highly variable in color, have a distinctive milky luster, and a conchoidal fracture. Flint clay is a variety of clay-rich rock in which the clay mineral is predominantly kaolinite.
Ironstones and flint clays have additional fabrics according to one of the following categories:
0X4 Massive: Homogeneous material with no obvious lines or marks
0X5 Mosaic: Divided into fragments; each piece maintains it original position relative to adjacent pieces
0X1 Brecciated: Divided into fragments; pieces have rotated relative to adjacent pieces
0X6 Nodular: Rounded or irregular masses floating in a matrix of different material
0X7 Oolitic (Pisolitic): Numerous, small rounded grains set in a matrix of different material
Kaolin is a type of clay found in nature. It can also be made in a laboratory. People use it to make medicine.
Kaolin is used for mild-to-moderate diarrhea, severe diarrhea (dysentery), and cholera.
In combination products, kaolin is used to treat diarrhea and to relieve soreness and swelling inside the mouth caused by radiation treatments. Some of these combination products are used for treating ulcers and swelling (inflammation) in the large intestine (chronic ulcerative colitis).
Some people apply kaolin directly to the skin in a wet dressing (poultice) or as a dusting powder. It is used to dry or soften the skin.
Kaolin is also used in laboratory tests that help to diagnose disease.
In manufacturing, kaolin is used in tablet preparation and to filter materials and remove color.
Kaolin is also a food additive.
How does it work?
Kaolin acts as a protective coating for the mouth to decrease pain associated with radiation-induced damage.
When it is applied to the skin, kaolin acts as a drying agent.