• http://www.onicesroofing.com/Are Composition Shingles and Asphalt Shingles the Same Thing? The roofing industry is full of different names and terms that are hard to understand as a homeowner. This can be confusing and often frustrating. Especially when different roofing contractors use different terms to mean the same thing. This brings us to a commonly asked question, “Are composition shingles and asphalt shingles the same thing?” For over 30 years, the team at Bill Ragan Roofing has helped homeowners understand the lingo, terminology, and other aspects of the roofing industry. Now we'll be doing the same thing for you. To start this article off, we'll clarify if composition shingles and asphalt shingles are the same. After that, we'll give you 3 things that every homeowner needs to know about a composition shingle roof. Are composition shingles and asphalt shingles the same thing? Yes, composition shingles and asphalt shingles are the same thing. It's simply just another term the roofing industry uses for asphalt shingles. The term “composition” comes from the fact that asphalt shingles are a composite of man-made materials. These materials consist of fiberglass, tar, and granules put on a fiberglass mat to make a shingle. Insurance companies also call them composition shingles on claims for roof damage. So, if you see “composition” on your insurance claim, there's no reason to panic. At the end of the day, you might hear different roofing contractors use one or the other. But the majority of the roofing industry uses asphalt shingles. Things to know about composition (asphalt) shingles Now you know that composition shingles and asphalt shingles are the same thing. After learning this, you're ready to learn the 3 main things every homeowner needs to know about composition shingles. 1. The 3 types of composition shingles There are 3 types of composition (asphalt) shingles: 3-tab, architectural (dimensional or laminate), and luxury (shake look or slate look). All 3 shingles have different looks to fit the style you're looking for and your budget. 3-tab shingles lay flat and get their name from the 3 tabs on each shingle strip. Architectural (dimensional) shingles have a random pattern and shadow lines to give your roof more dimension. Some even simulate the look of a wood shake roof. Luxury (shake roof and slate roof) shingles are larger and thicker than the other shingles. Most luxury shingles are designed to look like slate tiles, hence the name slate look. 3-tab shingles used to dominate the roofing industry, but now architectural shingles are the most common type installed on roofs today. Luxury shingles are as heavily marketed as architectural shingles, but they're around double the price. No matter your budget or the look you want, you'll be able to find an asphalt shingle that fits your needs. 2. The materials and components that make up a composition shingle roof While choosing which shingle you want is the fun part; your composition roof system is much more than the shingles you see from the street. It's a combination of key roofing components and materials that come together to form a complete roof system. These other roofing materials and components are just as important as the composition shingles themselves. The main materials and components that make up a composition roof are: Roof decking Roof flashing Underlayment Drip edge Ice and water shield Shingles Ridge capping Roof vents Pipe boots Flashing These materials come together to make a complete roof system that protects you and your family. To learn more about the functions of each roofing component and material, click on the hyperlinks attached to the materials or check out the 9 materials included in your roof replacement. 3. The lifespan of composition shingle roof A composition roof's lifespan is the number of leak-free years you get out of it. Remember the 3 types of composition shingles we discussed earlier? Well, each comes with a specified lifespan from the manufacturer. 3-tab shingles can last up to 25 years and live the shortest of the three types of composition shingles. On the other hand, both architectural and luxury shingles have a lifespan of around 30 years. But the luxury style is thicker and has the possibility to go over 30 years and up to 50 under the right conditions. As long as the composition shingles are properly installed and your attic is adequately ventilated, they'll get really close to the lifespans above. However, other factors impact how long a composition roof ultimately lasts. How much does a composition (asphalt) shingle roof cost? Now you know 3 things every homeowner needs to know about a composition roof. However, there's still one more crucial thing you need to learn. This, of course, is how much a composition shingle roof costs. The problem is, the roofing industry avoids talking about pricing or anything else relating to cost. But here at Bill Ragan Roofing, we do things differently. That's why we wrote another article that gives you the cost of a composition (asphalt) roof and the factors that impact the price of a replacement. The team at Bill Ragan Roofing has provided homeowners in Nashville and surrounding areas with high-quality asphalt roofing services since 1990. Whether you need repairs or a full roof replacement, you can count on our workmanship backed by a lifetime warranty to take care of your roof for decades to come. To learn what you can expect to pay for a composition roof replacement, check out How Much a New Asphalt Roof Costs: Pricing, Factors & Considerations. What Are Laminated Shingles? You've just gotten off the phone with another Marietta roofing contractor and he only seemed interested in installing laminated shingles on your roof. He's told you that they are his most popular seller, but does that mean they are the best shingle for your roof? Are laminated shingles really that great, or is it just sales hype? 3-TAB AND LAMINATED SHINGLES – WHAT A MARIETTA ROOFING COMPANY KNOWS ABOUT HOW THEY ARE MADE The difference between laminated and 3-tab shingles is really quite simple. They are both made from the same basic components, but one just uses more of them. The laminated shingle is essentially a beefed-up version of a 3-tab shingle, so it makes some sense to discuss the simpler 3-tab shingle, first. Twenty or so years ago, 3-tab shingles were used almost exclusively to cover residential roofs. Today's 3-tab shingle has not changed much, in terms of basic construction and size. A 1-ft. tall X 3-ft. wide shingle slab is cut with slots at one end to create three tabs, each about 5-in. tall X 12-in. wide. What results is the well-known and widely used “3-tab shingle.” The shingles are overlapped and nailed in place during installation. After a roof is finished the tabs are the only visible part of each shingle. Those unfamiliar with roofing often assume each tab is an individual shingle. Of course, now you know what every professional Marietta roofing contractor knows. Each visible “shingle” is, in fact, one of the tabs in a 3-tab shingle. As suggested earlier, laminated shingles are actually an enhanced, stronger version of a standard 3-tab shingle. Unlike a 3-tab shingle, a laminated shingle has an extra layer under its lower half. This gives the tabs on a laminated shingle a thickness that is twice as deep as it would be otherwise. But why is this thickness necessary? The primary goal of a laminated shingle is to provide a more natural and deeper look than that offered by a conventional 3-tab shingle. That is why laminated shingles are sometimes called architectural shingles. A laminated shingle creates depth by featuring tabs of varying widths that are separated by large, randomly spaced gaps. The large spaces between the cut tabs highlights the thickness of the tabs, creating a wonderful, visually appealing effect of depth. Some laminated shingles employ different shades, tones and even contrasting colors to create an even more distinctive, yet natural appearance. 3-Tab And Laminated Shingles – A Performance Comparison That Every Marietta Roofing Contractor Understands The next questions to ask is, how does the extra material used in a laminated shingle translate into performance? By virtue of their heavier construction, laminated shingles are able to last longer than 3-tab shingles. With more protective asphalt, granules and fiberglass per square foot, laminated shingles can resist sun, heat, impact and water damage more effectively and for a longer time than 3-tab shingles can. This is reflected, in general, by longer warranty times and higher wind ratings for laminated shingles. A side-by-side comparison of 3-tab and laminated shingles is presented below. Note that the warranty information provided is generic in nature and provided for reference, only. You should confirm product specific shingle warranty details with your Marietta roofing contractor before you make any purchasing decisions. How Long Can You Expect Your Asphalt Roof to Last? When investing in a new roof, you're expecting to get as many years out of it as possible. This is especially true for an asphalt roof. One of the most crucial questions customers ask is how long their asphalt roof will last. While a roofing contractor can say 25 or 30 years, you're probably wondering if it'll actually last that long. Luckily, we're here to help you understand the lifespan of your asphalt roof. The team at Bill Ragan Roofing has been installing asphalt roofs in the Nashville area since 1990. We know what it takes to maximize the life of your roof with our workmanship and attention to detail. The truth is, you should get pretty close to the manufacturer's lifespan of your roofing materials. But there are a number of factors that ultimately determine how much life you'll get out of your asphalt roof. By the end of this article, you'll know how long your asphalt roof should last and the factors that affect its lifespan. And to help save time and make your research a little easier, grab the Asphalt Roof Replacement Cheat Sheet at the very end. How long will your asphalt roof last? There are three types of asphalt shingles, 3-tab, dimensional, and luxury. But for this article, we're going to use the two most common asphalt shingles, 3-tab and dimensional, as examples. 3-tab shingles generally come with a 25-year manufacturer warranty. Dimensional shingles come with a 30-year manufacturer warranty. Vented properly and installed correctly, you should get around 80-85% of the life span out of an asphalt roof. That means you can expect to get about 20-22 years out of your 3-tab shingle roof and 25-28 years out of your dimensional shingles. posted an update 1년, 1개월전

    http://www.yey-business.com/Diesel Engine Basics
    A diesel engine is an internal combustion engine that uses compression ignition to ignite the fuel as it is injected into the engine.


    It is helpful to an understanding of how diesel engines work to compare the differences between a diesel engine and a gasoline engine. The main differences between a gasoline engine and a diesel engine are:

    A gasoline engine takes a mixture of gas and air, compresses it, and ignites the mixture with a spark. A diesel engine takes air, compresses it, and then injects fuel into the compressed air. The heat of the compressed air ignites the fuel spontaneously. A diesel engine does not contain a spark plug.

    A gasoline engine compresses at a ratio of 8:1 to 12:1, while a diesel engine compresses at a ratio of 14:1 to as high as 25:1. The higher compression ratio of the diesel engine leads to better efficiency.

    Gasoline engines generally use either carburetion, in which the air and fuel are mixed long before the air enters the cylinder, or port fuel injection, in which the fuel is injected just prior to the intake stroke (outside the cylinder). In a gasoline engine, therefore, all of the fuel is loaded into the cylinder during the intake stroke and then compressed. The compression of the fuel/air mixture limits the compression ratio of the engine – if it compresses the air too much, the fuel/air mixture spontaneously ignites and causes knocking. Diesel engines use direct fuel injection i.e. diesel fuel is injected directly into the cylinder. A diesel engine compresses only air, so the compression ratio can be much higher. The higher the compression ratio, the more power generated.

    Diesel fuel injectors, unlike gasoline injectors, must be able to withstand the temperature and pressure inside the cylinder and still deliver the fuel in a fine mist. To ensure that the mist is evenly distributed throughout the cylinder, some diesel engines are equipped with special induction valves or pre-combustion chambers. Newer diesel engines are equipped with high-pressure common rail fuel systems. See Diesel Fuel System Basics for more information on this type of fuel system.

    Diesel engines may be equipped with a glow plug. When a diesel engine is cold, the compression process may not raise the air temperature high enough to ignite the fuel. The glow plug is an electrically heated wire that facilitates fuel ignition when the engine is cold. Glow plugs are typically found on small diesel engines. Gasoline engines do not require glow plugs as they do not rely on spontaneous combustion.

    Working Principle of Diesel Engine Cooling System
    This post will introduce the working principle and components of diesel engine cooling system in detail. It is worth taking a few time to read it.

    Diesel engines are heat-generating sources. They are cooled by circulating a water-based coolant through a water jacket, which is part of the engine. The coolant is circulated through pipes to the radiator to remove the heat added to the coolant by the engine and then back to the engine.

    The typically components of the cooling system are:

    1. Water pumps

    2. Heat removing device (radiator or heat exchanger)

    3. Coolant expansion tanks (surge tanks)

    4. Temperature control valves

    5. Temperature and pressure switches and indicators

    6. Pipes

    Please note that the engine water cooling systems are either closed or open systems. Closed system is designed to use the same coolant with a closed circuit, preventing the losses of the coolant. While the open system uses the coolant once and discharges it or recirculates the coolant through systems, which cool the coolant by evaporation. Most of the stationary diesel engines use closed systems to control the chemistry of the coolant to prevent fouling of heat transfer surfaces and to closely control the temperatures.

    In general, diesel generator cooling system has the following functions:

    1. Cooling the engine cylinders via water jacket

    2. Cooling the lube oil via lube oil cooler

    3. Cooling combustion air via after cooler on turbo-charged engines

    Although there are various types of pumps used in diesel engine cooling systems, two pumps are often used for two circuits systems. One is Engine driven pump, the other is electrical driven pump (It is used to circulate the coolant to keep the engine warm when the engine is not running.)

    A high-powered diesel engine is very hard on the coolant. Additive-depleted coolant will not only allow liner cavitation but cause premature failure of the head gaskets, radiator, water pump, freeze plugs, heater core and thermostat.


    Many diesel engines issues are caused by lacking proper maintenance.

    First, check the additive level should be a part of maintenance schedule. Since the diesel engines have such a large liquid capacity, cooling system test strips are offered to check the level of additives. If the level is low, a bottle of SCA can be mixed in to renew the coolant without a complete change.

    Second, when you are going to buy coolant, make sure it is compatible with a diesel engine, not automotive or light-truck use, which means gasoline powered.

    Want to know about which brand of diesel generator is better, email me at: sales@dieselgeneratortech.com

    Understanding The Basics Of Diesel Fuel Systems
    Oil derivatives are the dominant source of fuel for transportation systems. You have probably seen news coverage of “hydrogen” and “electric” powered vehicles, but these sources are still very much in their infancy. Gasoline is the primary fuel source for cars, trucks, and other passenger vehicles, but regular gasoline systems are not the only systems available. Diesel systems are the preferred types for commercial vehicles, cargo ships, and trains.

    In theory, gasoline and diesel fuel systems are remarkably similar. They are both internal combustion engines and they both convert chemical reactions into mechanical energy. Both systems use a series of pistons to compress fuel and air before igniting it. The difference between the two systems is how energy is created within them.

    In a gasoline engine, gas and air are mixed then compressed and ignited with sparks from the spark plug. In a diesel engine, air is compressed and then the gasoline is introduced. When the air is compressed, it heats up and the compressed air ignites the gas.

    The differences between gasoline and diesel fuel systems do not stop at the combustion methods. Both systems also use entirely different fuels. Diesel is heavier and oilier than gasoline, so it evaporates more slowly. Additionally, diesel emits fewer compounds that are associated with global warming, like CO2 and methane. However, diesel fuel does emit more nitrogen compounds, which is associated with acid rain and smog.

    Since diesel engines mix in the fuel after the air is compressed, they are able to exercise more control over how much is utilized. In fact, these engines are considered one of the most fuel-efficient transportation systems. This is why vehicles with diesel systems dominate the commercial and freight industries.

    The components of diesel fuel systems
    A basic diesel fuel system is made up of five essential components. These are the tank, the fuel transfer pump, filters, the injection pump, and the injection nozzles.

    The fuel tanks in diesel systems are typically crafted from aluminum alloys or sheet metal. The tanks are designed to contain the diesel fuel and survive its long-term corrosive effects.

    The transfer pump sucks the diesel fuel out of the tank to move it into the injection pump. The transfer pump is generally located outside of the fuel tank or on the rear of the injection pump. In a few situations, transfer pumps are also located within the tank.

    Diesel, like gasoline, is always mixed with contaminants that can damage the combustion system. The fact that diesel is refined, stored, transported on trucks, then stored again at gasoline stations ensures that contaminants will enter the fuel. To address these concerns, filters are placed between the transfer pump and injection system. The filter removes dirt and other contaminants that could easily damage the fuel injection system.

    The injection pump compresses the fuel in preparation for injection. Injection nozzles spray diesel into the combustion chamber of the cylinders. The combustion chamber enables the car to convert the miniature combustions (explosions) into mechanical energy that turns the vehicle’s wheels.

    At Kendrick Oil, we distribute a wide variety of wholesale fuels, including diesel and regular gasoline. If your business is in need of wholesale fuel or if you want to learn more about any of our products and services, give us a call at (800) 299-3991. You can also Contact Us by email for details. We have locations in Texas, New Mexico, Oklahoma, and Kansas.

    Charge Air Cooling
    In modern engines, it is also important to ensure the temperature of the charge does not become excessive. In modern boosted engines, this is a real possibility. Excessive temperatures can lead to reduced charge density and higher combustion temperatures which can affect torque, power and emissions.

    While turbochargers and superchargers increase charge air density, they also increase the temperature of the air in the intake manifold. This arrangement with intake air compression with no subsequent cooling was suitable for applications such as North American heavy-duty diesel engines until the 1990s. As emission standards became increasingly stringent, additional increases in charge air density were needed. While this could be achieved through compression to higher pressures, this would require more expensive compression equipment and would further increase cycle temperatures. On the other hand, if intake manifold temperature could be reduced, the intake density could be further increased and more air could be supplied to the engine without necessarily increasing the intake manifold pressure. While this would require a compressor capable of higher flow, the cost would be considerably less than a compressor that was also capable of higher pressures. Cooling the air with a heat exchanger as it leaves the compressor is a common way to achieve this charge air cooling. Such a heat exchanger is referred to as a charge air cooler (CAC), intercooler or aftercooler (Figure 1). These terms are commonly used interchangeably. The term intercooler refers to the fact that this heat exchanger performs its task in between two stages of compression, i.e., between compression in the compressor and compression in the cylinder of the engine. The term aftercooler refers to the charge air being cooled after being compressed in the compressor. Increasing demand for improvements in fuel economy and exhaust emissions has made the charge air cooler an important component of most modern turbocharged engines.