http://www.suntrver.com/What is Energy Storage Systems? Energy Storage Systems are the set of methods and technologies used to store energy. The stored energy can be drawn upon at a later time to perform useful operation. For instance, many renewable energy sources (such as wind, solar energy or solar energy, tides) are intermittent. Sometimes the use of renewable energy is not direct when the energy is available, but at other times. Then we need energy storage so that energy can be used when needed. Energy is available in various forms including radiation, chemical, gravitational potential, electrical potential, electricity, elevated temperature, latent heat and kinetic. There are various methods and technologies to store various forms of energy. The choice of energy storage technology is typically dictated by application, economics, integration within the system, and the availability of resources. And they are often used as Residential Energy Storage System or Commercial Energy Storage System for Outdoor Power Supply. Energy storage systems are also involved in converting energy from forms that are difficult to store to forms that are more convenient or economical. A wide array of storage technologies have been developed so that the grid can meet everyday energy needs Since the discovery of electricity, we have sought effective methods to store that energy for use on demand. Over the last century, the energy storage industry has continued to evolve, adapt, and innovate in response to changing energy requirements and advances in technology. Energy storage systems provide a wide array of technological approaches to managing our power supply in order to create a more resilient energy infrastructure and bring cost savings to utilities and consumers. To help understand the diverse approaches currently being deployed around the world, we have divided them into five main categories: Batteries – a range of electrochemical storage solutions, including advanced chemistry batteries, flow batteries, and capacitors Thermal – capturing heat and cold to create energy on demand or offset energy needs Mechanical Storage – other innovative technologies to harness kinetic or gravitational energy to store electricity Hydrogen – excess electricity generation can be converted into hydrogen via electrolysis and stored Pumped Hydropower – creating large-scale reservoirs of energy with water posted an update 4개월, 3주전
http://www.sheungwell.com/Metal honeycomb substrates used in catalytic converters are made from extremely thin metal foil, typically with a thickness of just 0.05mm. By comparison the walls of a ceramic substrate may be four times thicker. For this reason, metal substrates offer less resistance to gas flow and therefore can accommodate a given flow rate with a lower pressure drop than an equivalent ceramic substrate. The improved flow properties of a metal substrate mean that, for a given level of pressure drop, a metal substrate can be made with a greater cell density than the ceramic alternative.
Metal Honeycomb Substrates
Since greater cell density results in increased surface area, this means that a metal substrate of a given volume will be more catalytically active than a ceramic one. Most metal substrates used in the cooking and heating sectors have between 100 and 200 cells per square inch (cpsi). Metal substrates can be made in a variety of profiles, with round, square and rectangular being most common. Another variable is the pattern of the corrugations in the foil, which can either be straight through or involve changes of direction. The latter option is known as ‘herringbone’ and gives rise to turbulence which increases the activity of the catalytic converter but at the expense of an increased pressure drop.
There are various ways of making metal substrates but the top-quality versions utilize Fecralloy foil which consists of 74% iron, 21% chromium and 5% aluminium. The main advantage of Fecralloy is that, when heated in air, a layer of aluminium oxide forms on the surface which protects the iron from corrosion and also provides a good key for the catalytic coating. Therefore this type of metal substrate is hygienic enough to use in cooking appliances.
Except for this, there are also other kinds of Honeycomb Substrates such as Ceramic Honeycomb Substrate, Metallic Honeycomb Substrate, Ceramic Honeycomb Substrate Catalyst Carrier, etc. And the Honeycomb Substrates are always used as a carrier for catalyst in chemical reactions.
Chemical reactions occur faster in the presence of a catalyst because the catalyst provides an alternative reaction pathway with a lower activation energy than non-catalyzed reactions. The catalyst is not consumed in the process and can continue to act repeatedly. Hence only very small amounts of catalyst are required to alter the rate of a chemical reaction. We offer a full range of metal catalysts in varying purities and concentrations that includes homogeneous catalysts, supported/unsupported heterogeneous catalysts and fuel cell catalysts for anodes, cathodes, electrodes.
Metal catalysts are extensively used both in the research laboratory and in industrial/manufacturing processes. Indeed, it is hard to find a complex synthetic reaction or an industrial process that does not, at some stage, require a metal catalyst.
Transition metals in particular are the metal of choice for use as catalysts in organic, organometallic and electrochemical reactions owing to their ability to exist in a variety of oxidation states, interchange between oxidation states form complexes with organic ligands, and act as a good source of electrons. Many key transformations in organic synthesis, e.g., cross-coupling reactions that include the Nobel Prize-winning Heck, Suzuki, and Negishi reactions, require the use of such late transition metals as palladium, platinum, gold, ruthenium, rhodium, or iridium.
We offer a wide selection of homogeneous and heterogeneous metal/precious metal catalysts for a broad range of organic synthetic reactions including metal complexes with chiral ligands for asymmetric hydrogenation, novel palladium coupling catalysts, platinum group metal (PGM)-based heterogeneous catalysts as well as Sponge Nickel catalysts. The benefits of using our metal catalysts include:
Shorter synthetic routes
Efficient manufacturing processes
Cost effective production
Except for metal catalyst, honeycomb substrates can be also used for some other catalysts like Ceramic Catalyst, Universal Catalytic Converter, Industry Metal Catalyst, Industry Ceramic Catalyst, Catalytic Converter Parts, etc.